All manuscripts submitted to the journal are written in good English.
This is your chance to grab the reader's attention. Remember that readers are potential writers who will quote your article. Identify the main issue of the paper. Start with the subject of the paper. Titles must be accurate, unambiguous, specific, and complete. Do not contain abbreviations that are rarely used.
Manuscript title; maximum 15 words; written in English or Indonesian; Calisto MT font; size 15; one room; right alignment; attract readers and convey the main findings of the research.
Author Name and Affiliation
Write the Author's name without title and professional position such as Prof, Dr, Production Manager, etc. Don't abbreviate last/family names. Always provide your first and last name. Write clear affiliations of all Authors. Affiliation includes name of department/unit, (faculty), name of university, country. Please indicate the Corresponding Author (include email address) by adding an asterisk (*) in superscript after the name.
The author's name must be printed in 10 pt Times Roman bold with 12 pts at the top and 12 pts at the bottom. The author's address is written in numbers and centered in both columns of the manuscript. Author affiliations must be in 10 pt Times Roman italic. The body of the text should start two lines (24 points) below the last address.
If the author has moved since the work described in the article was completed, or was visiting at the time, 'Current address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address where the author performed the work must be maintained as the primary affiliate address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for these footnotes.
Written in English; concise and factual and able to stand alone as a single piece of information; explains the main points of the research, including the background, aims and focus of the research, methods used, findings or results and conclusions of the complete paper. Keep provides logical connections (or transitions) between entered information. End with a final sentence that covers what you most want readers to think about as they continue reading the paper. Typed with one space and the length of the article is between 150 - 200 words. If possible, avoid including information that is not included in the paper, trade names, acronyms, abbreviations, or symbols.
Keywords: Written in English and Indonesian. Choosing the right keywords is important, as these are used for indexing purposes. Please choose a maximum of 5 words to make your manuscript easier to identify and cite.
An introduction is slightly different from a short and concise abstract. Readers need to know the background to your research and, most importantly, why your research is important in this context. What critical questions does your research ask? Why should readers be interested?
The purpose of the Introduction is to stimulate the reader's interest and to provide pertinent background information necessary to understand the remainder of the paper. You should summarize the issue to be discussed, provide background on the subject, discuss previous research on the topic, and explain exactly what the paper will cover, why, and how. A good thing to avoid is making your introduction a mini-review. There is a lot of literature out there, but as a scientist you should be able to pick out the ones that are most relevant to your work and explain why. This shows the editor/reviewer/reader that you truly understand your research area and can get straight to the most important issues.
Keep your Introduction very concise, well structured, and include all the information necessary to follow the development of your findings. Don't overburden the reader by making the introduction too long. Get to the other important parts of the paper sooner rather than later.
- Begin the Introduction by providing a brief background on the problem being studied.
- State the purpose of the research. Your research objective is the most important part of the introduction
- Establish the importance of your work: Why is there a need to conduct research?
- Introduce the reader to the literature in question. Don't give a complete history of the topic. Only cite previous work that is directly related to the current problem.
- Clearly state your hypothesis, the variables investigated, and summarize the methods used.
- Define abbreviations or special/regional terms
- Provide a concise discussion of the results and other research findings so that readers understand the big picture.
- Describe some of the key findings presented in your manuscript and explain how they contribute to the broader field of research.
- State the main conclusions derived from your results
- Identify any unanswered questions and any new questions your study has generated.
In the Introduction, the author must state the purpose of the work at the end of the introduction section. Before the objective, the Author should provide adequate background, and a very brief literature survey to record existing solutions/methods, to show which is the best of previous research, to point out the main limitations of previous research, to show what should be done. You hope to achieve (to overcome limitations), and to demonstrate the scientific merit or novelty of the paper. Avoid detailed literature surveys or summaries of results. Literature surveys are not described as author by author, but should be presented as groups per method or topic reviewed that draw on some of the literature.
Example of a novelty statement or gap analysis statement at the end of the Introduction section (after a survey of previous research):....... (brief summary of background)....... Some researchers focus on ....... There are limited studies relating to ....... Therefore, this research intends to ................. The aim of this research is ........ ..
In the Methods section, you clearly explain how you conducted your research in order to: (1) allow readers to evaluate the work done and (2) allow others to replicate your research. You should explain exactly what you did: what and how the experiment was run, what, how much, how often, where, when, and why the equipment and materials were used. The main consideration is to ensure that sufficient detail is provided to verify your findings and to allow for replication of the study. You need to strike a balance between brevity (you can't explain every technical issue) and completeness (you need to provide enough detail so the reader knows what's going on).
- Determine the population and sampling method;
- Describe instrumentation;
- Explain the procedure and, if relevant, the timeframe;
- Explain the analysis plan;
- Describe each approach to ensuring validity and reliability;
- State any assumptions;
- Explain the statistical tests and comparisons performed; ordinary statistical methods should be used without comment; advanced or unusual methods may require literature citations, and;
- Explain the scope and/or limitations of the methodology you are using.
In the social and behavioral sciences, it is important to always provide enough information so that other researchers can adopt or replicate your methodology. This information is especially important when new methods have been developed or innovative uses of existing methods are used. Lastly, please avoid creating subsections in Methods.
Results and Discussion
The purpose of Results and Discussion is to state your findings and make interpretations and/or opinions, explain the implications of your findings, and provide suggestions for future research. Its main function is to answer the question posed in the Introduction, explain how the results support the answer and, how the answer fits with existing knowledge on the topic. The discussion is considered the heart of the paper and usually requires some writing effort.
The discussion will always be connected to the introduction through the research questions or hypotheses you ask and the literature you review, but do not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; The discussion should always explain how your study has advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem.
To make your message clear, the discussion should be as brief as possible while clearly and completely stating, supporting, explaining, and defending your answer and discussing other important and relevant issues. Care should be taken to provide commentary and not a repetition of results. Side issues should not be included, as these tend to obscure the message.
- State the Main Findings of the Study;
- Explain the meaning of the findings and why they are important;
- Support the answer with the results. Explain how your results relate to expectations and the literature, clearly state why they are acceptable and how they are consistent or in line with previously published knowledge on the topic;
- Relate Findings to Similar Studies;
- Consider Alternative Explanations of Findings;
- State the Clinical Relevance of the Findings;
- Acknowledge Study Limitations, and;
- Provide suggestions for further research.
It is easy to expand the interpretation of the results. Be careful that your interpretation of the results does not go beyond what is supported by the data. Data is data: nothing more, nothing less. Please avoid and over-interpret the results, unwarranted speculation, exaggerate the importance of findings, tangential issues, or overemphasize the impact of your research.
The following components should be addressed in the discussion: How do your results relate to the initial question or objectives outlined in the Introduction (what/how) section? Do you provide a scientific interpretation for each result or finding you present (why)? Are your results consistent with what other investigators (what else) have reported? Or is there a difference?
Working with Graphics:
Figures and tables are the most effective way to present results. Captions must be able to stand on their own, so that figures and tables can be understood without needing to read the entire text. In addition, the data presented must be easy to interpret.
- Graphics should be simple, but informative;
- The use of color is recommended;
- Graphics must meet scientific and professional publication standards;
- Graphics must be completely original, unpublished works of art created by one of the co-authors;
- Graphics may not include photographs, drawings or caricatures of anyone, living or dead;
- Does not include postage or currency from any country, or trademarked items (company logos, images and products), and;
- Avoid choosing graphics that already appear in the manuscript text.
- Finally, please avoid creating Results and Discussion subsections.
The conclusion is intended to help readers understand why your research is important to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not just a summary of the main topics discussed or a restatement of your research problem, but a synthesis of the important points. It is important that the conclusion does not leave any questions unanswered.
Conclusions must answer the research objectives. Tell how your work advances the field from its current state of knowledge. Without a clear conclusion, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to assess the work, and whether or not the work is worthy of being published in a journal. Do not repeat the Abstract, or only include experimental results. Provide clear scientific justification for your work, and demonstrate possible applications and extensions. You should also suggest future experiments and/or demonstrate ongoing experiments.
- State your conclusion clearly and concisely. Be brief and stay to the point;
- Explain why your study is important to readers. You must instill a sense of relevance in the reader;
- Prove to readers, and the scientific community, that your findings are worthy of note. This means setting your paper in the context of previous work. The implications of your findings should be discussed within a realistic framework, and;
- Strive for accuracy and originality in your conclusions. If your hypothesis is similar to previous papers, you should establish why your research and results are original.
For most essays, one well-developed paragraph is sufficient for the conclusion, although in some cases, a two- or three-paragraph conclusion may be necessary. Another important thing about this section is (1) don't rewrite the abstract; (2) the statement investigated or studied does not constitute a conclusion; (3) do not propose new arguments, evidence, new ideas, or information unrelated to the topic; (4) does not include evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.
Bibliography should follow the style detailed in the APA 6th Publication Manual. Make sure that all references mentioned in the text are listed in the references section and vice versa and that the spelling of the author's name and year is consistent. Please do not use footnotes or endnotes in any format.
Tips: (Please cross check for)
- Spelling of the author's name;
- Number of authors listed before using etc., and;
- Reference style
We recommend that you all use ENDNOTE, MENDELEY, ZOTERO, or EASYBIB software for easy quoting. References should be the latest and most relevant literature available (around 5-10 years ago). Authors should also carefully follow APA6 Publication Manual guidelines for nondiscriminatory language regarding gender, sexual orientation, racial and ethnic identity, disability, and age. Additionally, the terms counseling, counselor, and client are preferable to their many synonyms.